Вариант 1


Saint Petersburg
St. Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia and one of the most beautiful cities in the world. It was founded in 1703 by Peter the Great as the "Window on Europe St. Petersburg was the capital of Russia from 1712 till 1918.
The city was built on the swampy land at the mouth of the River Neva. Prominent European and Russian architects worked here. The new capital grew rapidly in wealth and beauty.
When World War I began in 1914, the German-sounding name St. Petersburg was changed to Petrograd. After the October Revolution the city was renamed in honour of Lenin. In 1991 the old name of St. Petersburg was returned to the city.
During the Great Patriotic War the city suffered a great deal. The German armies laid siege to it in 1941, and for the next two years and a half the city was cut off from the rest of the country. No food could be brought in, and people died of starvation. Daily shelling and air raids destroyed parts of the city. Thousands of people were killed. Rebuilding took years.
Now St. Petersburg is an industrial, cultural and scientific centre. There are over 80 museums, more than 20 theatres, a lot of exhibitions, clubs, universities, colleges, schools and parks. The Alexandrinski Drama Theatre, the Bolshoi Drama Theatre, the Mariinsky Theatre of Opera and Ballet are pearls of the Russian art.
In St. Petersburg there are a lot of parks and gardens where citizens spend their free time. The Summer Garden is the oldest and most fascinating park. Rare trees, bushes and flowers grow there. Beautiful marble statues made by Italian sculptors and a famous cast iron grille decorate the Summer Garden. There is a bronze monument to the prominent Russian writer of fables Ivan Krylov (by sculptor Klodt) in the Summer Garden.
St. Petersburg is famous for its magnificent architectural ensembles of the 18th and 19th centuries. The city began with the Peter and Paul Portress built to protect the Neva banks from Swedish invasion. Later Domeniko Trezzini, the famous Swiss architect, reconstructed the fortress. It became a prison. Now it is a museum. Trezzini erected the Peter and Paul Cathedral here, and Russian tsars were buried in it.
The most famous square in the city is the Palace Square with its magnificent ensemble. Here one can see the Winter Palace built by Rastrelli. Till the revolution it was the residence of the Russian csars. Now the Winter Palace and four other buildings are occupied by the Hermitage, one of the oldest art museums in Russia. There one can see masterpieces of outstanding artists: Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Rembrandt, Velazquez and other unique works of art.
The Russian Museum is located in the Mikhailovsky Palace, designed by Rossi. Marvellous paintings by the famous Russian artists: Tropinin, Repin, Bryullov, Fedotov, Surikov, Serov; the works of sculptors: Rastrelli, Shubin, Antokolsky are exhibited here.
The streets and squares in St. Petersburg are very beautiful. Nevsky Prospect is the main street of the city, where there are amazing buildings, shops, hotels and the remarkable Kazan Cathedral (by Voronikhin) with a colonnade and monuments to M. Kutuzov and Barclay de Tolly. Here in the prospect one can see the magnificent building of the Admiralty (by Zakharov) and the ensemble of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. Famous Russian writers, painters, composers and actors were buried in the Lavra.
Majestic palaces, cathedrals, churches and other buildings, built by famous architects, such as: palaces of Stroganov, Menshikov, Anichkov, and St. Isaac's Cathedral, erected by Montferrand, decorate St. Petersburg.
The city is often called the Venice of the North because there are 65 rivers and canals with artistically decorated cast iron bridges. One of the most beautiful is the Anichkov Bridge.
Citizens and tourists enjoy visiting the suburbs of St Petersburg: Petergof, Pushkin, Pavlovsk with their wonderful palaces, parks and fountains.
St. Petersburg inspired many of our great poets, writers, painters, sculptors, composers and actors. Much of the life and work of Pushkin, Dostoevsky, Tchaikovsky, Repin and Kramskoi was connected with the city.

Вариант 2


Saint Petersburg
St Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia and one of the most beautiful cities in the world. It was founded in 1703 by Peter the Great as the "Window on the West". Thousands of workmen were brought from all parts of Russia to build a new city on the swampy land at the mouth of the Neva River. Peter the Great was in a hurry. The work was fast and hard, and workmen dropped dead by the hundreds. But the work went on.
In 1917 St Petersburg, a city of great beauty, with palaces, cathedrals, churches, government buildings became the capital. Under later rulers the new capital of the Russian Empire grew rapidly in wealth and beauty. Architects were brought from western Europe to lay out the city in harmonious squares.
Buildings were constructed of grey and rose-coloured granite. The Hermitage Palace and the Winter Palace, the homes of the tsars, were equal to any in Europe.
When the First World War began in 1914, the German-sounding name, St Petersburg, was changed to Petrograd. After the October Revolution the city was renamed after Lenin.
During the Great Patriotic War the city suffered a great deal. The German armies laid siege to it in 1941, and for the next year and a half it was cut off from the rest of the country. No food could be brought in, and people died of starvation. Daily shelling and air raids destroyed parts of the city. Thousands of people were killed. Rebuilding took years.
Now St Petersburg is an important industrial, cultural and educational centre. The population of the city is over 5 million.
St Petersburg is indeed a wonderful city: at every turn there's something to catch your eye. The Winter Palace, the Hermitage, the Russian Museum, St Isaac's Cathedral, the Peter-and-Paul Fortress, the Admiralty building attract thousands of tourists from every corner of the world.
Petersburg's many museums house some of the world's most famous art collections. The Hermitage, for example, contains the richest collection of pictures in the world.
The city is called the Northern Venice because there are 65 rivers, arms and canals there with artistically decorated bridges. It's also famous for its beautiful white nights.

 


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Last Updated (Thursday, 16 June 2011 19:06)