Вариант 1


London
I want to tell you about London. London is the capital of Britain. It was founded in 55 BC by Romans. This city is Britain's political, economic and cultural centre. London has three big parts: the City, the West End and the East End. The City of London is a big business centre. After the Great Fire of 1666 the City was rebuilt, and since then the City has become a centre of commerce, finance, and trade.
The West End of London has many historic places and places of interest. The East End is the poorest district in London with piers, warehouses and slums.
Piccadilly Circus is the heart of London. On special occasions many people come to the statue of Eros in the centre of the Circus. St. Paul's Cathedral is Sir Christopher Wren's creation. It contains a lot of paintings, sculptures and other works of art.
The Houses of Parliament are the building in which Parliament sits. Big Ben, the famous clock, is situated there. Westminster Abbey is one of the most popular cathedrals. A lot of famous people are buried inside Queen Elizabeth I, Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens and many others.
London has a number of royal palaces. Buckingham Palace is one of them. It has been the residence of British kings and queens for ages. When Queen Elizabeth is at home the flag is above the palace.
Trafalgar Square is famous for the tall monument in the centre of it. The monument, which is called Nelson’s Column, was built to commemorate the Battle of Trafalgar and to honour Admiral Nelson. The National Gallery, which is situated near the square, contains the national collection of Western European painting.
The British Museum is one of the biggest museums in the world. It was founded in 1753 by an act of Parliament. In 1857 the famous Reading Room was bum in the museum. There are a lot of artifacts and pieces of art on display at the museum. There is a big сlock exhibition, the Egyptian Sculpture Gallery.
But still one of the most famous museums in London is Madam Tussaud's Museum, which has a great collection of wax figures. The museum consists of several galleries where visitors can see wax figures of presidents, pop-stars, football players, film stars, musicians and other outstanding people.
The Tower of London is the oldest building in the city built in the 11-th century. It used to be a prison, a fortress, a palace, a treasury and even a zoo. The oldest part of the Tower is the White tower. Most of the public displays are in the White Tower nowadays. They include a big collection of armour, jewels and clothes. Twelve black ravens live in the Tower of London. There is a legend that England will be prosperous till the ravens live behind the Tower walls. If one of the ravens dies, it is replaced by another.
One of the London sites is Tower Bridge. This is a bridge across the Thames built because of the need for an open waterway for large ships.
London is an educational centre, too. From all over the world students come to the University of London, the largest university in England. London is also a cultural centre. There are more than forty theatres in the West End of London.
London is also a big shopping centre. It has many cheap and expensive shops of different kinds, so visitors can find anything in them. Harrods is one of the most famous and most expensive shops in the world. Famous people including the Royal Family buy things there.
London is really a great city. I would love to visit it one day.

Вариант 2


London
London is the capital of Great Britain. It is considered to be one of the most attractive cities; it is an old city with rich cultural achievements. The Romans, Saxons and Danes settled here in turn. Then the Normans came. London survived the Plague and the great fire, which followed. Little damage occurred during the World War I, but World War II brought tremendous destruction. Many buildings of great historic value were destroyed. Though some of them were spared. Among them there are: the Tower, the Westminster Abbey, St. Paul's Cathedral. But Pd like to start with the Houses of Parliament, which spread magnificently on the northern bank of the river Themes. They are famous for its Clock Tower and dock bell Big Ben. It was named so after sir Benjamin Hall, the first Commissioner of works when the Houses of Parliament were rebuilt. In medieval days it was the residence of king. But since 16-th century it became the permanent home of the Parliament. If you were in London you can't but visit the Westminster Abbey, the national shrine of England where famous people were buried. One of the biggest attractions of it is the oaken Coronation Chair on which the kings were crowned. W.A. is also noted for its Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and the Poet's Comer. The first thing you notice in London is the St. Paul's Cathedral. Its dome has always dominated the center of the city. A prominent architect Sir Christopher Wren built it and it is considered to be the architectural masterpiece. Londoners always have a special affection for the St. Paul's Cathedral, which is the largest Protestant Church in England. One of the most famous sights of London is Trafalgar Square, which was named so to commemorate the Nelson's victory in the battle of Trafalgar. In the center of the Square there is a Column, which is surmounted with the statue of Nelson. The four lines in the foot of it guard the Column. On the north side of the Square there are the National and the National Portrait Galleries, where the richest collections of genuine works of art are exhibited. I think to visit London without visiting its Tower is unimaginable. It was built by William the Conqueror to protect the city. Then the Tower was used for different purposes: as a royal palace, an observatory, an arsenal and a prison. Now there is a museum there, where the Crown Jewels are exhibited. A military garrison of «Beefeaters», who are still wearing their picturesque uniform, guards the Tower.

Вариант 3


London
London is the capital of Great Britain its political and commercial centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. Its population is about 8 million. London is one of the oldest and most interesting cities in the world.
London was founded in the first century A.D. by the Romans. They left London in the 5th century and the city was largely abandoned. By the 8th century London was again a busy trading centre, and in the 11th century it became the capital of England. Edward the Confessor built a palace and an abbey at Westminster. The Norman period saw the construction of the Tower, old St. Paul's Cathedral and many churches and monasteries.
Medieval London grew in importance as a trading centre and in 1215 its citizens won the right to elect their own leader, or Lord Mayor. London began to spread beyond the city walls during the Tudor and Stuart periods.
The Great Fire of 1666 destroyed three-quarters of the city. Sir Christopher Wren rebuilt St. Paul's Cathedral and designed 51 churches. The rebuilding of London followed the medieval street plan, but the old wooden houses were replaced by buildings of brick to reduce the future fire risk.
During the 19th century London spread rapidly into the suburbs. As a result of it, new forms of transport were developed, including the underground railway system. Britain was then at the height of her imperial power and this is expressed in such buildings as the Houses of Parliament and St. Pancras Station.
Large areas of London were destroyed by bombs during World War II, and the rebuilding that followed was of mixed quality.
Today in its full extent Greater London covers 625 square miles and consists of 33 separate boroughs. Traditionally London is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. They are rather different from one another.
The heart of London is the City, its financial and business centre. Numerous banks, offices and firms are situated there, including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey. The City extends over an area of about 2.6 square kilometres. About half a million people work there, but less then 6000 live there.
There are some famous ancient buildings within the City. Perhaps the most striking of them is St. Paul's Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It is Sir Christopher Wren's masterpiece. It stands at the top of Ludgate Hill on a site where a Christian church has stood since the 7th century. The construction of the Cathedral started in 1675 and was not finished until 1709. The magnificent classical structure is crowned by the dome. Inside the dome are scenes from the life of St. Paul. Here too is the famous Whispering Gallery. There are many memorials in the Cathedral including those to heroes such as Wellington and Nelson. The Tower of London is also situated in the City. It has been closely associated with many important events in English history. It has served as citadel, palace, prison, mint and menagerie. The White Tower was built in 1078 by William the Conqueror to protect the city. The Tower is famous for its il¬lustrious prisoners, such as Sir Thomas More and Guy Fawkes. Many notable people lost their heads on the executioner's block. The Tower is guarded by the Yeoman Warders popularly known as Beefeaters.
Westminster is the historic center of government. Until the 11th century it was a sacred place. King Edward the Confessor decided to build a great abbey church here. It was consecrated in 1065, but a week later the King died and was buried in the abbey. His tomb became a popular place of pilgrimage. It can still be found at the heart of the present Westminster Abbey. William the Conqueror was crowned in the Abbey and since then all the Coronations have taken place here. The Abbey contains many royal tombs, memorials to eminent men and women. But the most popular ones are those to writers, actors and musicians in Poet's corner.
Alongside the Abbey Edward the Confessor had a palace built The Palace of Westminster was the royal residence and also the country's main court of law. Parliament met here from the 16th century until the 19th century. The present Houses of Parliament were built after the old palace was burnt down in 1834. The building contains the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two chambers where parliamentary business is debated. On the corner next to Westminster Bridge stands Clock Tower, which houses the famous bell Big Ben.
Buckingham Place is the Queen’s official London residence. Built in 1702-1705 for the Duke of Buckingham, it was sold in 1761 to George III. The Palace was little used by royalty until Victoria's accession to the throne in 1837. Lon¬don's most popular spectacle is Changing of the Guard at Buckingham Palace. It takes place in the forecourt and lasts about 30 minutes.
The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It is the symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, shops, restaurants, clubs and theatres are situated there. There are splendid houses and lovely gardens belonging to wealthy people. Oxford Street is an endless shopping area which attracts visitors from all over in the world.
Going down Oxford Street you come to Trafalgar Square which is yet another symbol of London. This square received its name from Trafalgar, the cape off which Lord Nelson defeated a Franco-Spanish fleet in 1805. Admiral Nelson, cast in bronze, stands on top of a tall column in the middle of the square.
On the north side of Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. Not far away is the British Museum — the biggest museum in London. It contains a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures etc., and is famous for its library.
The East End is the poorest district of London. There are a lot of factories, workshops and docks here. The streets are narrow, the buildings are unimpressive. The East End is densely populated by working class families.

Вариант 4


London
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commercial centre. It's one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. Its population is about 8 million.
London is one of the oldest and most interesting cities in the world.
Traditionally it's divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. They are very different from each other and seem to belong to different towns and epochs.
The heart of London is the City, its financial and business centre.
Numerous banks, offices and firms are situated there, including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey. Few people live here, but over a million people come to the City to work. There are some famous ancient buildings within the City. Perhaps the most striking of them is St Paul's Cathedral, the greatest of British churches. It was built in the 17th century by Sir Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was founded by Julius Caesar and in 1066 rebuilt by William the Conqueror. It was used as a fortress, a royal palace and a prison. Now it's a museum.
Westminster is the historic, the governmental part of London.
Westminster Abbey has more historic associations than any other building in Britain. Nearly all English kings and queens have been crowned here. Many outstanding statesmen, scientists, writers, poets and painters are buried here: Newton, Darwin, Chaucer, Dickens, Tennyson, Kipling.
Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, or the Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British Parliament. The Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big hour bell, known as "Big Ben".
Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen.
The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It's the symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, shops, restaurants, clubs, and theatres are situated there. There are splendid houses and lovely gardens belonging to wealthy people.
Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London. It was named in memory of Admiral Nelson's victory in the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson's Column stands in the middle of the square.
On the north side of Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. Not far away is the British Museum - - the biggest museum in London. It contains a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc, and is famous for its library.
The East End was once the poorest district of London — with lots of factories and docks, narrow streets and unimpressive buildings. Today, the district is changing very fast. There are huge offices and new blocks of flats in the East End.

Last Updated (Friday, 19 February 2010 16:18)