Вариант 1


The United States of America
(Соедененные Штаты Америки )
The United States of America is situated in the southern half of North America. The area of the U.S.A. is 7,839,000 square km without Alaska. The area of the United States is much larger than that of 11 West Europe. The population of the USA is over 260 million people. The U.S.A. consists, of 50 states. The capital of ! the U.S.A. is the city of Washington in the District of Columbia. Stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, the U.S.A. borders with Canada in the north and with Mexico in the south. The territory of the United States may be divided into three main parts: the Appalachian Mountain system — in the east; the Cordilleras system — in the west; and the Central Plain — between them. The Great Lakes, situated on the U.S. - Canada border, are the world's largest fresh water basin; these lakes constitute a whole inland sea occupying an area of 245,000 square km. They are five in number, namely: Lake Superior, Lake Michi-gan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario. The biggest river of the United States is the Mississippi with its tributaries — the Ohio, the Missouri, and S the Arkansas Rivers. The territory of the United States is rich in natural resources. The reserves of coal are estimated at 3,200 billion tons. The reserves of oil and of metals in the U.S.A. are also very large. The main iron ore deposits are concentrated near Lake Superior. The main cities of the United States are: New York, which together with its suburbs has a population of 12 million people, Chicago, Philadelphia, Los Angeles and Detroit. The supreme state power in the U.S.A is represented by the president, a two-chamber congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate) and the Supreme Court.

Вариант 2


The United States of America
The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world after Russia, Canada and China. It occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Atlantic seaboard, across the central plains, over the Rocky Mountains to the densely populated West Coast and then to the island state of Hawaii. The USA also includes Alaska in the north of the continent. The total area of the country I about nine and a half million square kilometres. The USAborders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south; It also has a sea-border with Russia.
The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia, a special federal area where the capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The population of the COUNTry is about 239 million. The USA is called the "nation of immigrants". The country was settled, built and developed by generations of immigrants and their children. Many different cultural traditions, ethnic sympathies, racial groups and religious affiliations make up the people of the USA.
If we look at the map of the USA, we can see lowlands and mountains. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak is Mount McKinley which is located in Alaska. It is 6193 metres high.
The United States is a land of rivers and lakes. The northern state of Minnesota is known as the land of 10 000 lakes. The largest and deepest lakes in USA are the five Great Lakes on the border with Canada. America's largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande and the Columbia. The Mississippi is the world's third longest river after the Nile and the Amazon. The climate of the country varies greatly. The coldest regions are in the north. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part is continental. The south has a subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.
The history of this land is long. In prehistoric times hunters crossed from Siberia to Alaska by land.
Gradually they moved southwards and settled all over North and South America. Each tribe developed its own language and customs.
In 1492 Christopher Columbus sailed from Spain across the Atlantic Ocean. Instead of reaching India as he had expected he landed on an island off a continent unknown to Europeans. Thinking that he was in India, Columbus called the people he met there Indians.
Other explorers arrived from Europe. Spanish troops conquered vast parts of Central and South America which are now called Latin America. The French founded settlements in the north. In 1620 the first English party left England for America. They were Puritans, religious people, driven out of the official Church. The newcomers settled at Plymouth Bay. Some of them died of cold and hunger during the first winter in America. The Indians showed the white settlers how to fish and plant crops. Some settlers traded with the local population and some regarded them as enemies.
In 1783 independence from Britain was gained by 13 North American colonies. They formed the United States of America. In 1789 George Washington was elected the first president of the USA. New states joined the Union and the country grew westwards. Gold and silver were discovered on the Pacific coast and thousands of people rushed there across the continent. New towns sprang up and quickly grew.
In the southern states white farmers used black slaves to work on their huge plantations. When slavery was abolished in the North the southern states left the Union and formed the Confederacy. Civil war between the North and South broke out. In 1865 the Union won and slavery was abolished all over the USA.
Nowadays, the USA is a highly developed industrial coun¬try. It is the world's leading producer of copper and oil and the world's second producer of iron ore and coal. Among the most important manufacturing industries are aircraft, cars, textiles, radio and television sets, armaments, furniture and paper.
American farmers plant spring wheat in the western plains. They raise corn, wheat and beef cattle in the Midwest. Florida and California are famous for their vegetables and fruit production, and the northwestern states are known for apples, pears, berries and vegetables.
There are many important cities in the USA, for example New York, one of the largest cities in the world, a great seaport and financial centre, Chicago near the Great Lakes, one of the biggest industrial cities in the USA, and the second largest after New York. Boston is one of the first cities which were built on the Atlantic coast of America. Now it is a big cultural centre with three universities. Los Angeles in Califor¬nia is a centre of modern industries and show business. Other big cities in the USA are Philadelphia, Dallas, San Francisco, Washington, Detroit etc.
The USA as an independent state was set up by the Constitution in 1787. Under the Constitution the federal government is divided into three branches. The legislative branch is exercised by the Congress. The Congress consists of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are 100 senators and 435 members in the House of Representatives. The executive branch is headed by the President chosen in nation-wide elections every four years together with the Vice-President. The judicial branch is made up of Federal District Courts, 11 Federal Courts and the Supreme Court. Federal judges are appointed by the President for life. There are two main political parties in the USA: the Republicans and the Democratics.
From the beginning of the twentieth century the USA became the world's leading country.

Вариант 3


The United States of America
The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). It occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It also includes Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the country is about nine and a half million square kilometres. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea-boarder with Russia.
The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia, a special federal area where the capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The population of the country is more than 270 million.
If we look at the map of the USA, we can see lowlands and mountains.
The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak is Mount McKinley which is located in Alaska.
America's largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande and the Columbia. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the largest and deepest in the USA.
The climate of the country varies greatly. The coldest regions are in the north. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part is continental. The south has a subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.
The USA is a highly developed industrial country. It's the world's leading producer of copper and oil and the world's second producer of iron ore and coal. Among the most important manufacturing industries are aircraft, cars, textiles, radio and television sets, armaments, furniture and paper.
Though mainly European and African in origin, Americans are made up from nearly all races and nations, including Chinese and native Americans.
The largest cities are: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San-Francisco, Washington and others.
The United States is a federal union of 50 states, each of which has its own government. The seat of the central (federal) government is Washington, DC. According to the US Constitution the powers of the government are divided into 3 branches: the executive, headed by the President, the legislative, exercised by the Congress, and the judicial. The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
There are two main political parties in the USA: the Republican and the Democratic, though there's hardly any difference between their political lines.

Вариант 4


The United States of America
The USA Is situated in the central part of the North American continent. Its western coast is washed by the Pacific Ocean and its eastern coast - by the Atlantic Ocean.
The area of the USA Is over nine million square kilometres. It is a very large country, so it has several different climatic regions. The coldest regions are in the north and north-east. The south has a subtropical climate. The population of the USA is more than 236 million people. Most of the people live in towns.
The capital of the USA is Washington in the district of Columbia (D.C). It is an administrative city without much industry. Washington has many famous monuments In the streets and squares. One of them is the Abraham Lincoln memorial with 36 columns representing the states of the union at the time of Lincoln's death. The main part of the memorial is the figure of Lincoln.
The Capitol, where the Congress meets, is a very high and , beautiful building with white marble columns.
It is in the very centre of the city. Not far from the Capitol there Is the Library of Congress. It holds five million books.
The White House, the residence of the President is the oldest public building in Washington and one of the most beautiful.

Вариант 5


The United States of America
The territory of the United States of America stretches from the Atlantic seaboard, across the central plains, over the Rocky Mountains to the densely populated west coast and then to the island state of Hawaii.
America is a land of physical contrasts including the weather. The southern parts of Florida, Texas, California and the state of Hawaii have warm temperatures year round. The northern states and Alaska have extremely cold winters.
The United States is also a land of rivers and lakes. The northern state of Minnesota is known as the land of 10,000 lakes. The broad Mississippi River is the world's third river after the Nile and the Amazon. A canal south of Chicago joins one of the tributaries of the Mississippi to the five Great Lakes.
American farmers plant spring wheat on the western plains. They raise com, wheat and fine beef cattle in the midwest. Florida and California are famous for their vegetables and fruit production, and the northwestern states are known for apples, pears, berries and vegetables.
A wealth of minerals provides a solid base for American industry.
The United States of America was founded in 1776. The Constitution was adopted In 1787. 28 amendments have been introduced since then. The first 10 amendments are known as the Bill of Rights (1790). The Constitution operates today and sets the basic forms of the US government.
In present the population of the USA is about two hundred and thirty nine million. The USA is called the "nation of immigrants". The country was settled, built and developed by generations of immigrants and their children. Many different cultural traditions, ethnic sympathies, racial groups and religious affiliations make up the people of the USA. There are many big cities in the USA, such as New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Dallas, Boston, San Francisco, etc. The nation's capital Washington, D.C. with more than 3,4 million people is the largest metropolitan area in the country. Laid out by the French architect in the late eighteenth century, It was the world's first city especially planned as a centre of government.
The USA became the world leading country at the beginning of the twentieth century.

Last Updated (Friday, 19 February 2010 16:50)